Under the Dodd-Frank Act, the Federal Reserve as the overseer of large banks is granted the power to collect assessments, fees and other charges it deems necessary to carry out its regulatory duties.

On Monday, the Fed invited public comment on a proposal to annually assess how much the Fed is owed in fees from large bank holding companies that qualify for supervisory authority.

The proposal would impact firms with $50 billion or more in total consolidated assets and applies to nonbank financial companies designated by the Financial Stability Oversight Council for Fed supervision.

"Under the proposal, each calendar year would be an assessment period," the Fed wrote. "The Federal Reserve would notify each company of the amount of its assessment no later than July 15 of the year following the assessment period. Payments would be due by September 30."

The proposal says 2012 would be the first assessment period, but payments will not be collected until a rule is finalized.

The Fed says about 70 companies could face fees and assessments for the most recent fiscal year. The regulator estimates it could collect up to $440 million in fees.

The regulator is accepting comments on the proposal through June 15.